Full Report for Listed Buildings


Summary Description of a Listed Buildings


Reference Number
2057
Building Number
 
Grade
II*  
Status
Designated  
Date of Designation
01/05/1952  
Date of Amendment
27/10/2000  
Name of Property
The Pant including attached former Quaker Meeting House  
Address
 

Location


Unitary Authority
Monmouthshire  
Community
Llantilio Crossenny  
Town
Monmouth  
Locality
Llanvihangel-ystern-llewern  
Easting
342346  
Northing
214048  
Street Side
 
Location
At the end of a short farm track which runs W off the minor road between Onen and Wernrheolydd.  

Description


Broad Class
Religious, Ritual and Funerary  
Period
 

History
This exceptionally well-preserved mid-C16 cruck framed hall-house has a three unit plan with former open hall in centre, cross passage and service bay at lower end, and a second chamber, probably a parlour, at upper end. In front of the chimneystack, the exterior wall studs of the timber-framed walls are more broadly spaced, suggesting that the big hall chimney stack is contemporary with the original hall-house, and not added later. In the late C16 a floor was inserted in the hall. Subsequently, probably in C18, the gable crucks were removed and each end-gable rebuilt in brick. Since then, apart from some refenestration, there have been few changes. The attached Quaker Meeting House dates from the late C17. The early Welsh Quaker, Walter Jenkins (son of Thomas Jenkins, squire and rector of Llanvihangel-ystern-llewern), was born at the Pant. The passing of the Conventicle Act in 1592 had made clandestine religious meetings illegal. The Quakers, in common with other dissenters, were forced to meet in secret in private houses and it is very likely the Pant was used for Quaker meetings. Walter Jenkins was a prominent Quaker who in 1655 met George Fox and two years later accompanied Fox on his visit to South Wales. However, in January 1660 Jenkins was arrested and, after refusing to take the oath, imprisoned at Monmouth. He died in May 1661. A more permissive attitude to non conformists worship came after the passing of the Act of Toleration in 1689. Walter Jenkin's daughter, Elizabeth, subsequently married John Beadles, a Quaker who came from Kempston in Bedfordshire. Beadles probably built the meeting house at the Pant sometime in the 1690s. Quaker services continued here up to the end of C18. Later the house was owned by the historian and antiquary Sir Joseph Bradney, author of the celebrated nine part ‘History of Monmouthshire'.  

Exterior
C16 hall-house and attached C17 Quaker Meeting House. Hall-house is timber framed with slate roof and two tall, rendered, stacks; the stack to the right has a star shaped flue. One-and-a-half-storey SW front is rendered and has C20 transom style windows with small panes. Ground floor entrance doorway is off-centre (to right) and has C20 porch with monopitch roof and glazed door. Flanking the porch is a 20-pane window on each side. On first floor are three similar 20-pane windows to gabled dormers, which spring from below eaves. On NE elevation, which is remarkably unaltered, the timber framed walls of the medieval house are visible. Sill beam rests on a low stone plinth, with two tiers of square box-framed panels above. Wall posts at each end are notched below wall plate, to hold tie beams of former gable crucks. Cross passage doorway (off-centre, left) is boarded with applied fillets. To left is a C17 wooden 3-light ovolo moulded mullion, and to right a C17 2-light ovolo stair window. Further right is a C17 3-light diamond mullion, to hall. The NE gable is rendered and has C20 metal framed windows on both first and ground floors. Late C17 Quaker meeting house is attached at right angles to lower end of C16 house. English bond brickwork with slate roof and tall, rendered, lateral chimneystack to NW. Two-and-a-half storeys with basement. A continuous ogee and ovolo moulded string course runs across the building at first floor level, and each end-gable has additional string bands at eaves level and in gable head. Window openings have skewback lintels with brick voussoirs and C20 transom-type windows with small panes. SE front ground and first floors have two window openings; basement, a centre boarded door with small glazed panel, and small two light mullion window (right). Left gable, ground floor has a C20 boarded door and C20 bay window, and blocked openings on the first and attic floors. Right gable: attic window is C20, first floor has good late C17 leaded 2-light mullion and transom window and smaller 2-light window (right), and ground floor a C20 window and smaller single-pane fixed light (right).  

Interior
Exceptionally well-preserved interior of C16 hall house is little altered. Three unit with cross passage plan. Front doorway opens into the cross passage which cuts across kitchen (former service room) at lower end. Kitchen has chamfered ceiling beams with hollow and fillet (Wern-hir) stops and a quarry tile floor. On left is a boarded door with flat head and chamfered frame which opens into stone-flagged hall, originally open to the roof, but now with inserted late C16 floor. Ceiling beams are chamfered with similar hollow and fillet stops. Broad fireplace opening with deep, chamfered timber lintel. Inset into side wall of stack is a timber rail inscribed with date 1687 and initials I B, probably of John Beadles (see history). To left of fireplace, is boarded door of fireplace stair. Hall has well-preserved C16 post and panel partition with chamfered posts and diagonal stops, and (to left) a Tudor-arched doorway with chamfered wooden frame, and boarded door with strap hinges. This doorway opens into parlour at upper end, notable for exposed timber framing on N wall. On first floor, the timber-framed trusses of the medieval hall are visible. Both gable crucks have been destroyed, but a pair of crucks survive in the chamber above the kitchen, and the fine partition truss is visible in the chamber over the hall. Partition truss is exceptionally well-preserved and has upper V struts above the collar, and studs runing between collar and tie-beam. The tie-beam has been cut through to accommodate a doorway, presumably inserted when the open hall was floored in late C16. This chamber also contains a small fireplace with hob grate and plain surround, and wall cupboard with butterfly hinges. Principal ground-floor room of Quaker Meeting House has an ogee moulded fireplace surround with timber lintel and painted stone jambs, and exposed square section ceiling beams, also painted. Corresponding room on first floor has similar fireplace surround but with brick jambs, chamfered ceiling beams with unusual scroll and torus stops, moulded door surround with similar stops, and ‘creased' door. Attic not seen at time of resurvey.  

Reason for designation
Highly graded for its special interest as a remarkably unaltered late medieval hall-house with attached C17 Quaker Meeting House, retaining original detail of remarkably high quality, including original plan form.  

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